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Fire

True or False: You make charcoal by heating organic matter such as wood in an oxygen poor environment?

Charcoal pit. Image credit: sarahemcc
Charcoal Pit

True. Charcoal can be made from anything containing carbon. Traditionally wood has been the raw material used to make charcoal. Wood consists of three main components: cellulose, lignin and water.  These compounds are composed almost entirely from atoms of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon.  Charcoal is made by removing the hydrogen and oxygen in the wood while leaving just the carbon.

What secret don’t survival books teach you about making fire with friction?

Example of fire by friction image by Steve Sanford for Field and Stream. 
Hand Fire Drill

Answer: The type of wood used for the spindle and hearth board is crucial to making an ember. This is an often overlooked fact in many descriptions of making fire by friction.

What you are trying to do is create a very fine wood dust and then heat it to between 371-426°C (700-800°F). When that occurs, the wood dust starts to glow and it forms an ember much like the tip of a lit cigarette. That glowing ember can then be coaxed into a flame by adding it to a bundle of very dry tinder and blowing.

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